كلية الدراسات العليا

وصف المساقات

81755      Introduction to medicinal plants (3 CH)      

Use of plants for medicinal and other purposes; poisonous plants; cross-cultural aspects; chemistry and biological significance of natural products; natural products from higher plants in modern medicine.(Principals, anatomy, cultivation collection, processing, quality control)

 

81756     Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Research Methodology

This course is intended to equip the graduate trainee with knowledge and skills in the conduct and analysis of research studies, and in evidence synthesis as applied to healthcare.

 

81757      Analytical Techniques in Phytochemistry                                                                      

This course is intended to equip the student with the theory, principles, instrumentation and applications of the different pharmaceutical analytical methods. (Analysis involving HPLC, LC/MS/MS, GC-MS)

 

81758     Therapeutics of Medicinal Plants-1                                                                       

In Herbal Therapeutics courses, students learn to create customized treatment plans for patients. This includes the use of herbal preparations and diet and lifestyle counseling. Students also learn how to determine the effectiveness of treatment and the limitations of herbal medicine therapeutics within these conditions. The courses draw on the knowledge that students have gained from Anatomy & Physiology, Pathophysiology and their clinical experience. Herbal Therapeutics includes the discussion of Digestive, Circulatory, Endocrine and Respiratory therapeutics,……etc..

 

81759     Therapeutics of Medicinal Plants-2         

This is a continuation of therapeutics of medicinal plants-1 course.Students learn to create customized treatment plans for patients. This includes the use of herbal preparations and diet and lifestyle counseling. Students also learn how to determine the effectiveness of treatment and the limitations of herbal medicine therapeutics within these conditions. The courses draw on the knowledge that students have gained from Anatomy & Physiology, Pathophysiology and their clinical experience.

 

81760    Nutraceuticals                                                                                                            

This course will explore the science of nutrigenomics and focus on those plant nutraceuticals, bioactives that provide important health, wellness and comfort benefits. Regulatory and labeling impact on functional food production will also be presented. The course will also investigate opportunities for commercial development of functional and genotype-specific personalized foods and beverages of the future with focus on market-driving factors. The student will be asked to integrate the knowledge from other courses in this area which stands between the medicines and food components, with increasing social importance.

 

81761     Toxicology and Safety in Medicinal plants                                                                     

This course imparts knowledge and skills in toxicology and its use in determination of the safety of natural products. Students of this course will be expected to demonstrate an advanced knowledge base of the principles of toxicology (the study of adverse effects from biologically active compounds) and the mechanisms and effects of herb-herb and herb-drug interactions as they apply to botanical medicine. Students of this course will be expected to recognize, compare and contrast the toxicology of specific plant constituents and essential oils, different types of adverse reactions, the incidence and relevance of idiosyncratic and allergic reactions to herbal products, and the influence of herbal quality on potential toxicity. Students of this course will be expected to demonstrate a practical understanding of the relative risks and benefits of commonly used botanical substances, safety considerations for special populations, how to evaluate and relate herbal concentration and potency to appropriate dosing, and principles of quality control important to the production of unadulterated and authentic herbal preparations. Students of this course will be expected to demonstrate the ability to locate and evaluate, and then compare and contrast knowledge from empirical use with data from current phytochemical, toxicological, and epidemiological studies and databases. Students will be expected to employ concepts and theory to complete projects, practical experiments and labs, and to critically evaluate various concepts, approaches, methods, and issues in the field in relation to holistic remedies. Students will also formulate an experiment to prove a hypothesis of their design, analyze their results and present them in a format recognized by the science communities.

 

81762   Principle of Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry

This course introduces the chemistry of plants and how those chemical constituents interact with human physiology, pharmaceuticals and synergistically within individual plants. Groups of chemical compounds are examined including saponins, tannins, resins, alcohols, volatile oils, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, coumarins, anthraquinones, flavones, bitters, glycosides and alkaloids. Students of this course will be expected to demonstrate a strong theoretical knowledge of the principles of pharmacognosy (the knowledge of medicinal plant preparations and extracts) and phytochemistry (literally, ‘plant’ chemistry) as they apply to botanical medicine. While providing a comprehensive examination of the details of plant constituents, this graduate course holistically incorporates a solid knowledge base from traditional herbal medicine with scientific information from contemporary chemistry, botany, and human physiology. Students will be expected to critically evaluate major categories and subcategories of herbal constituents in order to explain how molecules contribute to an herb’s observable actions. Students of this course will also be expected to critically evaluate and critique various concepts, approaches, methods and issues related to quality control, herbal potency, and principles of extraction, synergy, and variability as it applies to the botanical industry. Colorful 3-D molecular models, diagrams, and plant photographs help to bring the concepts to life for the visually-oriented learner. Students will be expected to employ concepts and theory to complete projects, practical experiments and labs, and to critically evaluate various concepts, approaches, methods, and issues in the field. Students will also formulate an experiment to prove a hypothesis of their design, analyze their results and present them in a format recognized by the science communities.

 

81763      Plant Chemistry & Pharmacology                

This course will be delivered to ensure that practitioners are familiar with the main chemical constituents of the most common herbal and traditional medicines, the effects they have on the human body, and their reactions with orthodox drugs.

 

81764      Advanced Herbal MateriaMedica, plant systematics and taxonomy                          

This course provides a comprehensive study of botanical materiamedica, including hundreds of herbs that have been used as medicine. Students are introduced to the general concepts of herbal medicine and then become familiar with the most common and widely used herbs, including their Latin, English, arabic and Chinese names and their physical, energetic and therapeutic properties. In addition, students learn to identify dried herbs and avoid common complications and negative interactions. Students often find it helpful to concurrently enrol in Herbal Identification and Dosing. Students of this course will be expected to demonstrate an advanced knowledge base of the materiamedica, principles of various concepts in botanical studies including acquiring a strong theoretical understanding of the efficacy based on current research papers of selected botanicals such as alteratives, demulcents, cathartics, anthelmintics, astringents, diuretics, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, nervine, antispasmodic, tonic, stimulant, antiseptic, stomachic, and hepatic herbs. Students of this course will be expected to demonstrate a sound knowledge base of specific therapeutic groups of herbs and to appraise and relate the botanicals to each physiological system of the human body. Students of this course will also be expected to locate, review, and critically evaluate primary research in order to appraise the efficacy of the therapeutic action, active constituents and methods of administration for each botanical, contraindications and drug-herb interactions for each botanical, and regulatory status for each, and effectiveness for CAM protocols. Students will be expected to employ concepts and theory to complete projects, practical experiments and labs, and to critically evaluate various concepts, approaches, methods, and issues in the field in relation to botanical studies. Students will also formulate an experiment to prove a hypothesis of their design, analyze their results, and present them in a format recognized by the science communitie

 

81765     Production of Medicinal Plants                                                                              

The course will cover the whole production cycle under protected "greenhouses" or in the open field including all of the necessary information's including production of the seedlings plants in nursery, soil preparation, sowing, different cultural practices such as training and pruning systems, irrigation and fertilization, protection of the plants from pests and disease, and harvesting. The course is also to equip the students with the knowledge and skills needed in the cultivation, collection, processing and storage of medicinal plants.

 

81766     Herbal Pharmacy & Phytochemistry                                                                     

This course provides students with hands-on experience in preparing various herbal remedies and products, including tinctures, teas, creams, capsules, salves, syrups poultices, oils, ointments and more. The concept of polypharmacy is introduced and students learn the techniques of dispensing. Students learn to maintain a safe working environment and ensure that all equipment is safe and functional. Each class is dedicated to making different herbal preparations and students get to keep the products they make in class.This is primarily a hands-on course providingtechniques for harvesting and drying herbsand incorporating them into herbal productsand medicinal foods. It provides the basictheory and skills required to manufacturehigh-quality medicinal herb products fororal and topical application. Students learnthe foundational principles of extraction, theproperties of common solvents (e.g. water,alcohol, and oils) and the solubility of variousherbal constituents. Students apply theirlearning by creating herbal foods and extractsfor display at a community herbal productsshow. In addition to making their own“kitchen pharmacy” preparations, studentslearn how to evaluate the quality of the widerange of herbal products manufactured by thenatural products industry.

 

81767    Sources & Chemistry of Natural Products

This course encompasses the identification, isolation, structure elucidation, and study of the chemical and pharmacological characteristics of chemical substances produced by living organisms. This course is also intended to equip the student with knowledge and skills to identify medicinal products of mineral, plant and animal origin.

 

81768      Natural Products in Alternative Systems of Medicine

In this course, the graduate student will learn different principles of alternative systems of medicine, both locally and internationally. The graduate will apply knowledge of this particular system in conjunction with conventional medicine.

 

81769    Natural Products Discovery                                                                                     

Plants have an extraordinary capability to produce structural diverse and unique natural products. For centuries, these compounds (secondary metabolites) have been used as colorants, perfumes, flavors, antibiotics and other drugs. With the rise of the genomic era, it is now clear that nature’s potential to produce natural products is much larger than previously estimated, as many biosynthetic pathways are not expressed under laboratory conditions. This course will cover the drug discovery process. Nutriceuticals and herbal extracts and their biosynthesis. This will include: discovering novel biological active natural products, understand their role in chemical ecology, and to elucidate and their biosynthetic pathways to improve human health and quality of life.

 

81770    Data Science for Biology

Data Science is the information extraction and knowledge construction from data.

Biology is rapidly acquiring the character of a data science.  Unstructured information about genes, proteins and other molecules are compiled in large databases. The Data quality assessment and the resolution of sparse data sets are the first aims of Data Science requirements.

The outcomes of data mining models lead to more knowledge and understanding about how medicinal plants interact with living organisms and human health are the next aims.

This course will introduce students to this rapidly growing field and equip them with some of its basic principles and tools as well as its general mindset. Students will learn concepts, techniques and tools they need to deal with various facets of data science practice, including data collection and integration, exploratory data analysis, predictive modeling, descriptive modeling, data product creation, evaluation, and effective communication. The focus in the treatment of these topics will be on breadth, rather than depth, and emphasis will be placed on integration and synthesis of concepts and their application to solving problems.

 

81771      Normalized Data and Knowledge Repositories                                                             

The data preservation and quality assessment are two of the most important issues of the research.

The secondary data research and big data sets used for knowledge discovery, machine learning and translational data mining rely on normalized data repositories.

The International Standard Organization (ISO) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) defined a set of international standards for data repositories and interoperability that will be mandatory for all pharma industry, regulatory authorities, medicinal products distributors and vendors, and prescribers.

There are some of these standards that are applicable for Medicinal Plants.

Also, the Information Technology Industries are promoting tools for unstructured databases capable to accommodate evolutive data models and ontologies.

The ontologies modeling are the core of knowledge repositories and they are mandatory for reasoning. The main aims of this course are the foundation for data open access data repositories and knowledge sharing.

 

81772      Applied Pharmacognosy                                                                                        

This course is intended to give students the opportunity to have practical field experience in medicinal plants and other sources of natural products. The course is designed to enable students work in all areas of cultivation, preservation and distribution of medicinal plants and their products.

 

81774      Plant Biochemistry, Physiology and Ecology                                                                

Building from phytochemistry course, this course examines both why and how plants produce substances that provide the foundations of human nutrition and plant-based treatments. Discussions integrate the basics of plant physiology, ecology, and biochemistry from the plants’ perspective, with an emphasis on the applicability of this perspective in human, agricultural, and ecological health. To elucidate the structure and role of primary metabolites in plants and To explicit the fundamentals of metabolic energy, Metabolism and Plantconstituents.To understand the role and interaction of plants with their environment and To provide comprehensive knowledge of population, community, ecosystemecology and its relevance to mankind.To provide comprehensive knowledge on some vital functions and mechanisms of plants and To give it comprehensive and advance knowledge of growth regulators, mechanism of water uptake and role of essential nutrients in plant metabolism.

 

81775      Integrative Pathophysiology                                                                                  

This graduate level course is a comprehensive exploration of the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and CAM treatment of disease. Organized by body system, the anatomy and normal physiology is studied, then the disease processes and abnormalities that can occur within that system and CAM protocols. Behavioral factors, life-style choices, and environmental factors on the cause and progression of disease are covered as well as the most current advances in genetic research. This course will guide when clients should be referred to their licensed care provider for diagnosis of the ailments studied. A comparative review of both allopathic and holistic treatment modalities for a number of conditions is also covered.

 

81776      Ayurvedic Herbs and Spices                                                                                  

This course examines the cultural context of various herbs and spices employed in Traditional Ayurvedic Medicine and their modern uses in present day nutritional practices. Students gain an understanding of the energetic constituents and applications of herbs and spices, both as food and as medicine, for the purposes of maintenance, detoxification, antidoting, healing and rejuvenation.

 

81777      Herbal Pharmacology                                                                                             

In this course the student will learn a unique version of pharmacology - one that emphasizes traditional classifications based on energetics, as well as modern pharmacological principles and the active chemical constituents in herbal medicines. Understanding plant chemistry provides some underpinning of the student’s therapeutic knowledge by linking the beneficial clinical applications of herbs to classes of chemical compounds responsible for the effects. It also provides a rationale for choice of methods in the preparation of herbal medicines. In addition to the standard principles, we will cover less conventional aspects of pharmacology including the concepts of synergy and hormesis, along with new frontier sciences such as pharmacogenomics. Pharmacology of Traditional Medicine is also the study of the interaction of herb-related drugs with living organisms under the guidance of the basic theory of Traditional Medicine and with the aid of modern technology. Based on the updated research achievements, the course explores the actions, related mechanisms, and active components of herbal medicine. Students are required to master the modern scientific connotations concerning the effects and the main indications of herbal Medicine. They learn basic knowledge and principles that are likely to be drawn upon during research and clinical work.

 

81778     Quality Control of Medicinal Plant Products                                                                

This course is intended to equip the student with knowledge and skills in the methods for assay of medicinal plant products and for determination of active ingredients and impurities present in them.

 

81779      Drug Development and Evaluation                                                                      

This course is intended to equip the graduate student with knowledge on drug design and development. It will also deal with drug registration including that of herbal medicines, and clinical trials.

 

81780      Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Biopharmaceutics                                  

This course encompasses the principles of drug absorption, disposition and response and their application in the development and use of herbal medicines.

 

81783      Medicinal Plant Sciences                                                                                        

This course will cover, introduction to herbal science, Pharmacopeias, Cryptogams – Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. The course will concentrate on Taxonomic structure, Classification of plants-General outline. Major taxonomic groups. Algae- General Characters of the Divisions as Proposed by Smith. Fungi- General characters of Phycomycetae, Ascomycetae,Basidiomycetae, Deuteromycetae. Bryophytes – General Characters of Hepaticae, Anthocerotae,MusciPteridophytes – General Characters of Psilophyta, Lepidophyta,Calamophyta and Pterophyta. Economic Importance of the above groups of plants with reference to Food and Medicine. The course will include:

  1. Identification of the following plants based on exomorphic and endomorphic features and chemical tests for their active constituents:
  2. Medicinal Plants: Datura(tropane alkaloids), Andrographis(diterpene lactose), Curcuma(curcuminoids), Boerhaavia(glycosides), Ricinus(fatty acids), Terminaliabelerica(tannins), Allium sativum(sulphur compounds).
  3. Cosmetics and Aromatherapy: Vetiveriazizanoidis, Rosa sinensis, Jasminum spp., Pogostemonpatcholi.
  4. Food additives: Bixaorelana, Beta vulgaris, Cinamomumtamala, Zingiberofficinalis, Allium sativum, Curcuma longa.
  5. Identification of Algae used as food and in medicine (5 plants)
  6. Identification of Fungi used as food and in medicine (5 plants)
  7. Identification of Bryophytes and Pteridophytes used in medicine (5 plants)
  8. Cultivation of Mushrooms.

 

81784      Botany & Plant Identification                                                                                 

This course explores plant anatomy, plant physiology, herbal ecology (including ethical wild crafting and harvesting concepts), and field identification. With a particular emphasis on the practical use of medicinal plants, the fields of taxonomy (classification), genetics and evolution, anatomy and function of cells and plant parts, energy metabolism of photosynthesis and respiration, and the biochemical pathways producing medicinal compounds are examined. Graduates will be expected to demonstrate a strong theoretical understanding of botany, including the terminology used for plant identification, comparing and contrasting the different structures of leaves, flowers, stems, and roots used to distinguish species from one another; employing botanical theory to complete projects, practical experiments, and labs including traditional mnemonics and the ‘doctrine of signatures,’ integrated with contemporary methods of reliable plant identification; and critically evaluating various concepts, approaches, methods, and issues in the field. Field exercises will be presented so that the student can acquire practical experience. Students will also formulate a botanical experiment to prove a hypothesis of their design, analyze their results, and present them in a format recognized by the biological science communities.

 

81785      Medicinal Plant Biotechnology                                                                             

Plant Transformation and Production of Edible Vaccines. In vitro production of secondary metabolites. Bioreactors and Nanotechnology will be covered.

  • Establishment of suspension culture
  • Enhancement of product formation using Elicitation.
  • Synthesis of nanoparticles and its characterisation using UV-visible absorption spectrometry
  • Antimicrobial activity of the fabricated nanoparticles.

 

81786     Modern Plant Authentification Techniques                                                                   

Techniques in Chromatography I :Principles, Instrumentation, processes, applications of -Adsorption Chromatography, Partition Chromatography, HPLC ,Counter-current extraction,  TLC, HPTLC, Gas- liquid chromatography, GC , Affinity Chromatography. UV and Visible spectrophotometer, Turbidometry, IR, AAS, NMR, ICI, and X-ray diffraction. Principles of Electrophoresis, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Polyacralamide Gel ElectrophoresisBasic protein chemistry, principles of separation, equipment and process, standardisation of technique Electrofocussing, Southern, Northern and Western Northern Blotting will be covered. The course will include:

  1. Seperation of Phytochemicals using different methods of Chromatography (TLC, HPTLC, GC, Column).
  2. Extraction and separation of Proteins from the given raw material/products using PAGE.
  3. Extraction and separation Nucleic acid by Gel electrophoresis.
  4. Principles, apllications- UV and Visible and IR Spectroscopy.

 

81787       Plant Anatomy                                                                                                       

To provide the students understanding about anatomical features of vascular Plants. The course will cover the following:

  1. The plant body and its development: fundamental parts of the plant body, internal organization, different tissue systems of primary and secondary body.
  2. Meristematic tissues: classification, cytohistological characteristics, initials and their derivatives.
  3. Apical meristem: Delimitation, different growth zones, evolution of the concept ofapical organization. Shoot and root apices.
  4. Leaf: types, origin, internal organization, development of different tissues with special reference to mesophyll, venation, bundle-sheaths and bundle-sheath extensions. Enlargement of epidermal cells.
  5. Vascular cambium: Origin, structure, storied and non-storied cell types, types of divisions: additive and multiplicative; cytoplasmic characteristics, seasonal activity and its role in the secondary growth of root and stem. Abnormal secondary growth.
  6. Origin, structure, development, functional and evolutionary specialization of thefollowing tissues: Epidermis and epidermal emergences, Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Sclerenchyma, Xylem, Phloem with special emphasis on different types of woods, Periderm.
  7. Secretory tissues: Laticifers (classification, distribution, development, structural characteristics, functions) and Resin Canals.
  8. Anatomy of reproductive parts:
    1. Flower
    2. Seed
    3. Fruit
  9. Economic aspects of applied plant anatomy
  10. Anatomical adaptations
  11. 11. Molecular markers in tree species used for wood identification.

 

81788       Select topics-1 in Medicinal Plants                                                                       

This course is designed to cover the up-to-date aspects of medicinal herbs such as: quality control, herb selection, extraction and standardization, registration and regulation, raw material and production.

 

81789       Select topics-2 in Medicinal Plants         

Special topics in Medicinal Plants which not covered by any course will be discussed.

 

81790       Plants Genetics                                                                                                       

Methods for isolation, purification and characterization of natural products. Natural product semi-synthesis and synthesis. Synthesis of analogues of natural products. Recombinant DNA techniques. Applications to engineered biosynthesis. Feeding of unnatural precursors. Pathway manipulation.

 

81791      Methods in Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture                                                        

Basic and advanced knowledge of plant cell, organ and tissue cultures, including protoplast culture, optimal conditions, culture media preparation, sterility management and laboratory equipment. Basic and advanced knowledge about use of plant biotechnology in breeding and micropropagation techniques. Practical and theoretical bases of main model in vitro cultures.

 

81792      Plant Development and Metabolic Regulation                                                              

At the end of this course, students have an advanced knowledge on the concepts and molecular mechanisms that drive plant growth and development under changing environmental conditions, with focus on the metabolic regulation of networks controlling cell division, cell differentiation, plant organ formation and floral transition. Students are able to integrate information obtained at different hierarchic levels, and seek knowledge in related research fields (e.g. bioinformatics, biotechnology, signal transduction) to tackle practical problems and challenges that are related to plant developmental biology (e.g. developing high yielding and stress-tolerant crops). They can synthesize, interpret and critically discuss recent scientific literature within a team. By following a plant developmental practical course on the trade-off between growth and defense (optimal defense theory), students are able to critically reflect on their own observations, helping them to better understand the complexity of trade-off relationships during crop production in a changing world.

 

81793      Molecular Plant Physiology and Metabolism                                                                

The principal focus of the existent course is on the molecular aspects of the physiological and metabolic processes in plants. Preliminary knowledge of plant physiology and metabolism would be imparted. Critical knowledge of phyto-hormone biosynthesis, mode and mechanism of action will be highlighted. Students will be oriented into developing a molecular understanding of the principles of photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis, molecular basis of nutrient uptake and utilization with emphasis on plant stress physiology and pathology.

 

81794      Post-harvest of medicinal plant                                                                             

This course will cover the harvesting methods, effects of pre-harvesting on post-harvest quantity and quality of medicinal plants, pre-cooling, cooling and storage techniques, sorting and grading, packaging, and transportation). 

 

81799     Thesis                                                                                                                        

This is the second phase of the research component of the program and is expected to equip the student with knowledge and skills in data cleaning, analysis and presentation. The thesis is expected to be a significant contribution to the area of medicinal plants.

 

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