Hebron University Journal - Hebron University Journal for Research - Volume 12, 2023 - Biochemical, GC-MS Analysis, antioxidant, and Phytochemical Screening of the Wild Palestinian Plant Ruta graveolens

Review

Ruta graveolens is a wild plant commonly grown in the mountains of Palestine that belongs to Rutaceae family and widely used in the traditional Palestinian medicine. The aim of this investigation is to study the biochemical, antioxidant, antibacterial, and GC-MS analysis for Ruta graveolens plant. The antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract (80%) of R. graveolens leaves was conducted by well diffusion method. The antioxidant activity was performed using both ABTS●+ and DPPH free radical scavenging assays. Phytochemical screening and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis were done following standard protocols. Methanolic extract (80%) of R. graveolens leaves showed pronounced antibacterial activity against Gram negative Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains reaching 68.6% ± 3.5 and 80.1% ± 4 activity respectively, and against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus reaching 89.9% ± 2 activity in well diffusion method compared with the positive control. Methanolic extract of R. graveolens also demonstrated a pronounced scavenging capacities of 60.90% ± 2.4 and 59.49% ± 3.5 activity using ABTS●+ and DPPH free radical scavenging assays respectively. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS assays of R. graveolens leaves revealed the presence of a variety of wide range of phytochemical compounds such as cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phenolic groups, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, and Phlobatannins. The present study of the methanolic extract of R. graveolens leaves evidently confirmed the presence of a variety of phytochemical compounds such as cardiac glycosides, coumarins, alkaloids, and other phytochemicals in this wild plant that could open further valuable research to investigate its pharmacological benefits.

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