Course Description

21100  Arabic Level

This course aims to develop the student's language skills by studying the spelling of Arabic, ways of writing some characters, such as al-hamza (glottal stop), and how numbers are written. It reveals some of the spelling problems in the student's writings. It also aims to develop the student's literary taste through looking into some of the literary texts at different literary eras, and studying their syntactic and morphological applications. This course is also concerned with functional writing.

21101  Studies in Language and Literature

This course selects some significant literary and linguistic topics, both classical and modern, and explores their subjects, characteristics, scholars, value and artistic as well as thematic phenomena, using selected literary excerpts.

21102  Arabic Library

This course is concerned with indexing, library classification systems, and the contribution of the old Arab authors to the various related fields, focusing on the primary sources in terms of their methods, significance, authors and drawbacks.

21103  Art of Writing and Expression

This course examines the technical standards of functional and creative writing, methods of expression, the conditions of good writing in theory and practice through studying the genres of modern Arabic literature, such as: oratory, the literary letter, biography, essay, thought, short story, drama, etc. It focuses on the literary features and types of these genres through studying selected literary excerpts and asking students to practice and supply accurate writings representing  some of these genres.

21104  Appreciation of Literary Text

This course examines some distinctive literary texts (poetry and prose, classical and modern), to extract their aesthetic values, focusing on the modern methods used in analyzing literary texts 

21110  Palestinian Folk Literature

This course is a document of presence, a human national identity indispensable for reviving the Palestinian conscience and encountering the enemies' plans. The topics of this course include folktales, ballads, proverbs, folk theater, incantations, puzzles, jokes, anecdotes, popular calls, etc. The course also examines the relationship of these patterns with the cause of the Palestinian people in particular and the nation's issues in general.         

21111  Introduction to Music

This course offers a historical profile of music, music theories, musical scales and modes, musical instruments, acoustics, music templates, templates, song templates, music and song training methods, composing and writing music and the muashshahat (strophic songs). The course also studies and offers practical training on some musical instruments like the lute, the piano, the organ, and the violin, etc.

21211  Morphology

This course introduces students to the definition of morphology, its relationship to other sciences of language, and the morphological scale.

  • Verb conjugations: sound vs. weak verbs, full vs. defective verbs, to dynamic vs. static verbs, basic vs. increased forms; meanings of the increased forms, changing them to passive, emphasizing them by means of the two nūns (nunation) of emphasis, and referring them to the pronouns.
  • Noun declensions: sources, rigid and derivative, derivatives, masculine and feminine, dual and plural, kinds of plural nouns, collective noun, plural of plural, diminutives, attribution.
  • Common rules for both verbs and nouns: hamzat al-wasl (conjunctive  /phonemic glottal stop) and al-qat' (disjunctive /non-phonemic glottal stop), al-'ibdal (substitution), al-'ilal (exchange of weak letters), al-'idgham (assimilation), al-'imala (deflection of sounds).

21212  Syntax A

This course introduces students to the definition of Nahw (syntax; less common: grammar) and its relationship to other sciences of language.

  • Syntactic (grammatical) introductions: Speech and sentence, parts of speech and characteristics of each part, al-'i'rab inflection and al-Bina' structure, parsing cases and markers, types of parsing, Almabniyyat (phrasing) and Almu'rabat (wording), wording using sub-markers, indefiniteness and definiteness, types of definite articles.
  • The nominal sentence: subject and predicate, al-af'aal an-nasikha (case abrogating verbs): kana (to be) and akhawatiha (its sisters: similar verbs), kada and akhawatiha , al-huruf an-nasikha (case abrogating particles): particles similar to the verb laisa (not to be), inna (emphatic particle: indeed) and akhawatiha, and la (pre-nominal negative particle: no; not).

The course also provides exercises and applications on these issues.

21213  Syntax B

The verbal sentence: types of transitive verbs, the subject, na'ib al-fa'il (subject-substitute of the passive verb).

Al-mansubat (the subjective nouns): al-maf'ulat al-khamsa (the five object nouns), functions: (al-ikhtisas specialization, al-ighra' invitation, at-tahthir warning, al-ishtighal syntactical regimen, at-tanazu' conflict in regard to government (in brief), al-munada vocative), al-hal (case), at-tamyiz (specification), al-'dad (number), al-istithna' (exclusion). Attention is given to exercises and applications on these topics.

21214  History and Schools of Syntax

This course introduces students to the definition of Nahw (syntax) its relationship with other sciences of the language, the era of reasoning, types of evidence, the rationale behind writing Arabic syntax, its origin and philosophy, syntactic operator, multiple dialects, their impact on the rules of syntax, the founders of syntax, schools of syntax —in  Basra,  Kufa, Baghdad, Andalusia, Maghreb, Egypt and the Levant—the  philosophy and principles of each school, their most prominent scholars and contributions, their most prominent works of language (their syntactic and morphological heritage), reasons behind the syntactic differences, and examples on controversial matters.

21215  Introduction to Syntactic Studies

This course introduces students to the definition of language, language sciences, syntax, its relationship to the various sciences of the language. It provides an appropriate and simple study of the following:

parts of speech, characteristics of each part, al-'i'rab (parsing; inflection) and al-bina' (structure), parsing types and cases, major and minor markers of parsing along with examples, al-mu'rabat (wording) and al-mabniyyat (phrasing) of speech, types of tanwin (nunation), indeclinable words, some particles such as: huruf el-Jarr (prepositions), al-takhsis (exclusive particles), an-nasb (accusative particles), al-jazm (jussive particles), at-tafsir (explanative particles), at-tanbih (warning particles), and the like.

The course also provides a study of some forms used to express various functions, such as: question/answer and their particles, exclamation, praise, disparagement, oath , command and prohibition, negation, number, etc.

21218  Prosody and Rhyme

This course studies prosody: definition, founder, importance, meters, its 'ilal and zahafat (poetic license), meters of Arabic poetry and rhythmic phenomenon in modern poetry.

The course also studies art of rhyming: definition, types, characters, markers, drawbacks, and poetic imperatives.

21221  Arabic Language Skills

The order of the alphabet, the solar and lunar letters, consonants and

vowels, al-'idgham (assimilation) and al-'ibdal (substitution) (exemplifying these concepts briefly), alif (hamzat) al-wasl (conjunctive  /phonemic glottal stop) and al-qat' (disjunctive /non-phonemic glottal stop), Arabic calligraphy drawing rules and types, focus on riq'a and naskh fonts, the most important rules of spelling, punctuation marks, Arabic dictionaries and their uses, esnad alaf'aal (verbal predication) to the various pronouns, waqf (pause) and types.

21222  Hebrew Language (1)

This course is an introduction to the Hebrew language. Students are acquainted with the Hebrew alphabet (both the handwritten and the typed), Hebrew phonology, (diacritics, syllables, and stress), patterns and types of the Hebrew sentence. The course focuses on language skills and covers the grammatical aspects necessary to enable learners to practice the language and analyze different texts focusing on everyday life conversation and exchanges. (Prerequisite 21222)

21223  Arabic Language Skills

Derivatives (briefly), categories of nouns in terms of case endings, dual and plural nouns, types of the Arabic sentence in terms of form and esnad (predication), the pillars of each type, types of the Arabic sentence in terms of meaning (informative and non-informative sentences), definite and indefinite articles (focus on demonstrative pronouns, relative clauses, relative pronouns and infinitive particles).

practicing proper reading, and analyzing texts linguistically and artistically.

Training in oral expression of different themes and attitudes using accurate and appropriate language.

Training in written expression and applying the skills studied in (1) and (2).

21228  Arabic Calligraphy

This course presents the beginnings of drawing the characters of Arabic calligraphy, its development, types, artistic  characteristics, improvement objectives, uses, tools, educational rationale behind teaching calligraphy, endeavors of the most important old Arab calligraphers such as Ibn Muqlah and Ibn al-Bawwab, and the most famous modern calligraphers. The course also includes practical application of the most famous fonts such as riq'a and naskh.

21229  Arabic Phonetics

Character and sound, the relationship of phonetics with other language sciences, human articulatory system, study of Arabic sounds: consonants, vowels and the like, phonetic transcription and International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), sound characteristics and places of articulation, types of syllables, some common phonetic terminology (phoneme, morpheme, stress, intonation, symmetry/asymmetry, etc.), the most important contributions of old Arab phoneticians, such as al-Khalil, Sibawayh, Ibn Jinni and Ibn Sina (Avicenna), and comparing them with the contemporary contributions to the field, survey of modern phonetics references by contemporary Arab and foreign phoneticians, the role of the science of tajwid (Quran recitation) in phonetics.

21233  Pre-Islamic Poetry

This course aims to study the problems and the questions, which opened the doors of controversy and ijtihad (independent judgment) among researchers in the jahili (pre-Islamic) poetry, by addressing selected poetry texts which represent the age and life, introduce the artistic values of poetry, and portray the social, religious and intellectual life. The course also examines some literary issues and phenomena of poetry, such as priority, oral vs. written poetry, standing at the remains of the beloved's deserted home (poetic prelude), plagiarism, as-sa'alik  (vagabond poets) etc. Finally, the course explores the purposes of poetry, the most important poets and their poetic tendencies.

21234  Special Subject in Pre-Islamic Literature

This course addresses a topic from the pre-Islamic literature. The topic can be changed depending on the lecturer. The objective is to familiarize the student with the facts of the selected subject matter, which can be a literary phenomenon, a pre-Islamic poet, or a genre of the pre-Islamic literature.

21235  Islamic and Umayyad Poetry

This course aims to reveal the influence of Islam on the poetry of this period so that the student can understand the revolt of Islam against intellectual, social, economic and political ignorance and the accompanying events which affected poetry and poets. The course also examines aspects of intellectual, emotional, and political changes which resulted in developing and reviving the arts and purposes of poetry. Finally, the course explores the most important environments and figures of poetry in these periods, clarifies the phenomenon of poetic specialization, and draws a general picture of these periods through studying selected poetic models. (Prerequisite 21233)

21236  Special Subject in Islamic or Umayyad Literature

This course examines a literary topic which sheds light on the period and its characteristics, such as studying a poet in terms of the most striking features of the environment in his accomplishments as well as Islamic influences on his poetry, or studying a subject or a phenomenon which was common in that era, such as naqa'id (flytings), literature of an Islamic sect, candid or chaste ghazal (love poetry). The study covers thoroughly all elements of the chosen subject.

21237  Texts from the Age of Evidence             

This course is considered the practical application of Pre-Islamic Poetry and Umayyad Poetry until the end of the Age of Evidence which is marked by the last poet whose poetry is quoted as [literary] proof. The poet is Ibrahim bin Harma died in 183 AH.

The aim of this course is to train students to read the texts properly and to treat the text directly depending on analysis and taste, which shows the characteristics of form and content of the texts from the Age of Evidence. Students are also expected to memorize evidence from poetry and the Holy Qur'ān.

21238  Classical Prose (3 C. Hrs)

This course covers the historical and artistic evolution of the classical Arabic prose from the pre-Islamic era to the end of the 6th century AH. This is done through exploring selected texts which represent the evolution and the artistic features of the various prose genres, such as khitaba (oratory), proverbs, letters and maqamat (rhyming short stories) and other similar techniques. (Prerequisite 21235)

21239  Classical Arabic Literature (1)

This course covers the literature, poetry and prose, of Pre-Islamic and Islamic eras, highlighting its fundamental causes, artistic phenomena, and the impact of political and social life on the literature of these eras. The course also studies the most important figures of poetry and prose, examines the manifestations of intellectual and emotional changes and explores the role of these changes in developing and reviving the literary themes of these eras through the selected poetry and prose texts.

21283  Arabic Rhetoric

The course starts with a brief introduction to the origin of Arabic balagha (rhetoric) and its most famous books and authors. Then, it examines some genres or sciences of rhetoric: al-bayyan (eloquence), al-ma'ani (meanings) and al-badi (trope; the art of metaphors and of good style) through applied models .

21294  Research Methods in Language and Literature

This course aims to introduce students to the methodology which governs literary and linguistic research, taking into account the factors that lead to the desired outcomes. These research factors are observing accuracy, identifying the sources and references, and coordinating and documenting research data. The course also focuses on the research methods pursued by various researchers in literature and language, identifies each method's tools and principles, such as those based on natural sciences or social studies or psychological/aesthetic research for the literary research, and descriptive, historical and comparative approaches for the linguistic research both theoretically and practically.

21314  Syntax (c)

Al-majrurat (words governed by a preposition/in the genitive form): prepositions, genitive construction.

At-tawabi' (grammatically dependent words): adjective, substitute, al-bayyan (sequential clarification), an-nasaq (sequential coordination), emphasis.

Inflection/parsing of verbs (nominative, accusative, and jussive cases of the present tense), the condition and its particles, oath: its particles and methods, coupling of the condition and oath, request and its present tense answer.

The course also pays due attention to exercises and applications. (prerequisite 21213)

21315  Special Subject in Syntax

Selecting topics or specific issues of Arabic Language (syntax or morphology) from classical sources of Arabic, such as: Sibawayh's Book, Al-Farra's book Ma'ani al-Qur'an (Meanings of the Qur'an), Majalis Tha'lab /Amali Abi Ali al-Qali (Tha'lab's Councils/al-Qali's Dictating Lectures), Asrar Al-Arabia (The Secrets of Arabic), Al-Insaf (Equity), Ibn Hisham's Mughni Al-Labib, Al-Jurjani's Dala'l al-I`jaz of the Qur'an (Evidence of the Inimitable Eloquence of the Qur'an), or Ibn Jinni's Al-Khasa's and Al-Munsif (The Characteristics and The Impartial), Sharh Al-Shafiyyah, As-Suyuti's Al-Muzhir, and the like. (Prerequisite 21213)

21322  Arabic Philology

Definition of language and philology, the difference between Arabic philology and Islamic jurisprudence, domains and objectives of philology, the beginnings of authoring in philology, the most famous books, the difference between philology and modern linguistics , the emergence of language, relationship between Arabic and the family of the Semitic languages, history and evolution of Arabic dialects, characteristics of the Arabic language, sciences of Arabic language, the development of Arabic language and sciences, studying some aspects of philology, such as: synonyms, homonyms, antonyms, derivation, Arabization, hybrid words, calques, etc., lexical differences, inversion, blending, and others.

21323  Hebrew (2)

This course complements Hebrew "1". It aims to enrich the students' vocabulary and grammar of this language, to study in-depth the verb: types and meters, to discuss the close links between the Hebrew and Arabic, along with using the dictionary, reading excerpts from Hebrew poetry to identify the influence of these languages on each other and how much their meters and meanings are related, and analyzing prose texts related to Palestine and the Arab world from Hebrew books and newspapers.

21326 Ancient Book

This course selects a source of the Arabic heritage in literature, criticism, rhetoric or linguistic to train the student to read ancient texts, to identify the writing method of their authors and the issues they cared about, to identify sources which are helpful in understanding the contents of these books, to discuss the many aspects of grammar and rhetoric, and to practice documentation and investigation or editing.

21327  Linguistics

The course examines—defines and clarifies—the following concepts briefly:

Language and tongue, linguistics, synonymous terms, between linguistics and philology, emergence of linguistics, history of linguistics: efforts before the Arabs, efforts by the Arabs, efforts in Europe before the Renaissance and during the Renaissance in Europe and America.

Approaches to linguistic studies (descriptive, historical, comparative and contrastive), fields and levels of linguistics (phonological, morphological, etc.).

Definition of some modern linguistic concepts, such as consonants, vowels, semi-consonants, phoneme, morpheme, stress, intonation, phonetic transcription and Phonetic Alphabet.

The course is also concerned with recent schools of linguistics: Saussure and the descriptivist school, structuralist school ( the American and the European), generativist school, transformationalist school, and other modern schools.

21337  Abbasid Poetry

This course covers the development and prosperity of poetry in the Abbasid period, indicating the technical features of this poetry. It studies attempts of innovation and the most prominent trends of poetry. The course also includes an artistic and analytical study of some selected poetic texts by which students can identify the most prominent trends of social, political and cultural life. (Prerequisite21235)

21339  Special Subject in Abbasid Literature              

This course studies a literary theme, phenomenon, school or a prominent man of letters. It sheds light on the period, characteristics, and the most prominent features of the environment in his literary output. The course can cover one of the following phenomena: maqamat ( rhyming short stories), signing quotations, debates, ar-ras'il ad-diwaniyah (formal letters), al-khitaba (declamation), al-dearat (monasteries) poetry, and poetry on the theme of conflict with the Romans.

21341  Classical Arabic Literature (2)

This course covers the literature of the Abbasid, Zanki, Ayyubid, Andalusian and Mamluk periods. It focuses on the artistic features, highlights modernization attempts and poetic trends, and examines the effects and transformations in the structure of the Arabic poem. The course also includes an artistic and analytical study of some selected poetry and prose, through which students can identify major literary trends, understand the most important features of literature in this age, and reflect on the most important poets and writers of the periods mentioned, above.

21351  Andalusian and Maghrebi Literature

This course studies the following topics: political, social, cultural life; religions and languages; and the Andalusian character.

It also studies the Andalusian poetry: its boundaries and beginnings, factors which influenced its inception, its relation to the poetry of the Arab Mashriq, its themes and characteristics, its new trends, al-muwashshahat (poetic songs), az-zajal (vernacular verse). The course includes a study of the most prominent poets and writers. (Prerequisite 21235)

21352  Special Subject in Andalusian Literature

This course may cover a literary phenomenon, a literary figure, the literary life in an Andalusian city, or the literary life in a specific period of time .

21354  Ayyubid and Mamluk Literature

This course aims to examine the general political, social, intellectual and religious developments in the Levant and Egypt. It looks into the three consecutive states that emerged there during this period. It focuses on the analytical study of the literary texts selected from the literature of the Zankid, Ayyubid and Mamluk eras. The selected texts are particularly related to the religious literature, jihad (holy war) literature, Prophetic panegyrics, and social literature: its manifestations, methods and doctrines. It also focuses on the study of writing and oratory: its themes and characteristics, and the intellectual and literary movement of writing in particular. (Prerequisites 21238, 21337)

21355  Special Subject in Ayyubid and Mamluk Literature

This course studies a topic of literature from this era, such as the literature of the Crusades, Prophetic panegyrics, al-bdieiat (rhetorical poems praising the Prophet Muhammad PBUH), mystical literature or vernacular forms of literature. Alternatively, the course may study a literary figure from this era, such as Ibn al-Farid, al-Busayri or Ibn al-Arabi. The course may study one of the prominent careerist poets, such as al-warraq (the copyist), the butcher, or the oculist. The course may however examine an encyclopedia of this age, such as Masalik al-Absar (Tracks of Sights) by Ibn Fadlallah al-Umari, Nehayat al-Adab (The End of the Literature) or Subh A'sha (Morning for the Night-blind) by al-Qalqashandi.

21375  Special Subject in Ancient Literary Criticism

This course deals with literary criticism in a given century or era. However, it may study an eminent critic or a topic of criticism, such as: the old and the new, pronunciation and meaning, poetry plagiarism, poetry column, the poem structure and the sources of poetic imagination, etc.

21382  Classical Criticism

This course covers criticism among the Arabs through the ages, until the end of the 5th century AH. It displays pictures from the Pre-Islamic and Islamic criticism and examines the most important issues of criticism in ancient times: their development and the influence of criticism of the previous nations on them. The course also studies the contributions of top critics, such as: Ibn Qutaybah, al-Jahiz, Ibn al-Mu'taz, Qudaamah Ben Jaafar, Ibn Tabataba, al-Amidy, al-Jurjani and others. (Prerequisite 21283)

21392  Special Subject in Qur'an and Hadith studies

This course covers a topic from the Holy Qur'an or the Noble Hadith, such as: miracles, tales, eloquence, al-Jarh (contestation) and at-Tadil (Justification), types of Hadith, Hadith quotation, etc.

21394  Qur'anic Studies

This course is concerned with the following: the collection and codification of the Qur'an and the controversy over the Qur'an which was raised by the Orientalists' studies.

  • Approaches of commentators to the Holy Qur'an (interpretation of a selected Qur'anic verse ) in the light of these approaches.
  • Qur'anic recitations and their relation to the sciences of the Arabic language.
  • Figures of speech and linguistic miracles of the Holy Qur'an along with an applied study of a selected Qur'anic verse.

21415  Syntax(D)

Exclamatory style, formulas of praise and disparagement, negatives and interrogatives.

- What functions as verbs (function of masadir infinitives and mushtaqqat derivatives), verbal nouns, informative and non-informative sentences, parsing of sentences and quasi-sentences, the story, pause, syntactic operator, tools (studying examples on operating and non-operating tools). Due attention is paid to exercises and applications.(Prerequisite 21314)

21418  Language Applications

General oral and written applications on the various topics of nahw syntax, sarf (morphology), balagha (rhetoric) and 'arud (prosody) through studying—parsing  and analyzing—Qur'anic  texts and high literary texts.

21421  Lexicon and Lexicology

Definition and components of the lexicon, or dictionary, history of Arabic lexicography, schools of Arabic lexicography, types of Arabic dictionaries (lexes, themes, and meanings) their criticism, types of modern dictionaries, lexicography in the West, development of the Arabic dictionary, types of modern dictionaries.

Meaning and lexicology: elements of lexicology, (dictionary, syntactic and contextual meaning), types of meanings (phonological, morphological, rhetorical, social, etc.) the relationship between words and meanings, contribution of ancient Arab lexicographers to this field (Ibn Jinni, al-Jurjjani and others), the development of semantics in the West  and the various semantic theories, such as semantic fields, semiotics, usage, idea, contextuality, behaviorism, and others.

21473  Special Subject in Modern Literature

This course chooses a topic of modern literature from poetry, novel, drama, short story and examines the chosen topic thematically, such as taf'ila (trochee), symbol and myth, poem structure, novel structure, communication through heritage,

experimentation, issues of narration, a prominent figure of modern literature, or any modern, high-value issue relating to poetry, fiction or drama.

21474  contemporary Palestinian literature

This course deals with the artistic and thematic issues as well as various trends in the different genres of the Palestinian literature, such as poetry, novel, short story and drama. It studies these issues theoretically and practically, indicating their development, figures and characteristics. (Prerequisite 21354)

21475  Modern Arabic Literature

This course studies genres of modern and contemporary Arabic literature, such as poetry, novel, short story and drama. It traces their development, thematic and artistic issues, and contributions of their figures. The course also studies selected literary models representing these genres from the beginning of the modern literary era until now.

21476 Modern Poetry

This course covers the development of modern Arabic poetry starting from the revival stage through the poetic trends, such as emotional, national, pan-Arab, humanitarian, etc. , to the renewal of trochee, artistic and thematic issues of poetry and its distinctive characteristics. (Prerequisite 21354)

21477  Modern Prose

This course examines the artistic and thematic issues of the short story, novel and drama from Renaissance until the present, indicating the various trends, schools and contributions of their founders and studying them through selected model texts. (Prerequisite 21354)

21478  Children's Literature

This course explores children's literature. It highlights the importance, objectives, means and sources of this type of literature and displays its genres, such as poetry, short story, drama and children's songs. It shows the artistic characteristics which distinguish these genres and make them commensurate with the stages of child development and psychology. The course also includes an applied study of selected texts representing each genre.

21479  Arabic Drama

This course traces the march of Arab theater from its inception up to the present. It is concerned with the creation of the theater and the efforts of pioneers, such as an-Naqash, Abu Khalil Qabbani, Yaqub Sanu'). It shows the sources and the artistic characteristics of this theatrical phase, and studies the phase of maturity at the hands of Tawfiq al-Hakim and a number of senior playwrights, revealing their role in the development of the Arab theater and in the consolidation of the modern dramatic trends in their artistic soil. The course also looks into the types and themes of modern theater and introduces an applied study of selected plays which represent the phases and trends of the Arab theater through its artistic development.

21481  Modern Criticism              

This course explores the contribution of modern critics, especially the Arab ones, and takes a look at the Western schools of criticism, such as classicism, romanticism, realism, etc., movements of criticism, such as structuralism, deconstructionism, etc., and theories of criticism, such as the mimetic, the expressionist, and the reflectionist. These are applied to selected literary models. (Prerequisite 21382)

21482  Rhetoric in the Light of Modern Criticism

This course reveals the importance of Arabic rhetoric and terminology in the light of contemporary critical study and doctrines as stated in the studies of contemporary linguistics, such as the schools of stylistics, structuralism and deconstructionism with reference to the status of rhetoric in these studies.

21485  Special Subject in Modern Criticism

This course examines a current issue or school of modern criticism, a critical doctrine or theory, or the contribution of a particular critic.

21488  Comparative Literature

This course examines the concepts, inception, schools, fields and pioneers of comparative literature. It demonstrates aspects of convergence between different arts, and focuses on the Arab-Islamic influence on the literature of other nations, and the influence of foreign literatures on modern Arabic literature.

21495  Graduation Project

Scholarly research chosen by the student in his/her specialization under the supervision of a specialist professor, and it is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts.

Qur'anic and Prophetic Tropes

This course explores the concept of trope in general, the structural patterns in the languages of the Qur'an and Prophetic Hadith and the 12 aesthetic pictures in the Qur'anic nathm (versification), the Prophetic Hadith, the parable and the paradox.

A Literary Issue

This course examines a literary issue (classical or modern), and displays it in a way which allows the student to study it in-depth in the light of schools of criticism.